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Jallib Style Guide

Jallib Style Guide

Jallib Style Guide

Why a style guide?

The Jallib Style Guide (JSG) defines the standards used to write Jalv2 code. It is recipe to write a standard jalv2 library.

There are many ways to write code, whatever the programming language is. Each language has its preferences. For instance, java prefers CamelCase whereas python prefers underscore_lowercase.

While this seems a real constraint, not necessarily needed, it actually helps a lot while sharing code with everyone: it improves readability, and readability is important because code is read much more often than it is written.

Finally, more than a how to write code, this guide is here to help you not forget things like author(s), licence, and remind you of some basic principles.

Headers in a library

Every jal file published on this repository must have the following headers (comments), as the very beginning of the file:

-- Title: [very small description if needed]
-- Author: [author's name], Copyright (c) YEAR..YEAR, all rights reserved.
-- Adapted-by: [adapter author's name, comma separated]
-- Compiler: [which version of compiler is needed. Ex: >=2.4g, 2.5]
-- Revision: $Revision$
--
-- This file is part of jallib (https://github.com/jallib/jallib)
-- Released under the ZLIB license (http://www.opensource.org/licenses/zlib-license.html)
--
-- Description: [describe what is the functional purpose of this lib]
--
-- Sources: [if relevant, specify which sources you used: website, specifications, etc...]
--
-- Notes: [put here information not related to functional description]
--

[code starts here...]

The author is the original author's name. The library may have been modified and adapted by adapters. The compiler helps readers to know which compiler version is needed to use this file (no space between operator and version: >=2.5r6). The revision field was used by SVN but is no longer used, it is still there for backward compatibility for certain validation tools. description, sources and notes fields must be followed by an empty line (just `--`) to declare the end of the field content. As a consequence, those fields cannot have empty lines within them.

JSG Header example:

-- -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Title: Library for the DS3231 Real Time Clock IC.
-- Author: Rob Jansen, Copyright (c) 2021..2022, all rights reserved.
-- Adapted-by:
-- Revision: $Revision$
-- Compiler: 2.5r6
--
-- This file is part of jallib (https://github.com/jallib/jallib)
-- Released under the ZLIB license (http://www.opensource.org/licenses/zlib-license.html)
--
-- Description: Library for controlling the SD3231 Real Time Clock IC. 
--              The chip uses an IIC interface. The library provides all 
--              functions and procedures to support the rtc_common.jal library and
--              includes extra functions and procedures specific for the DS3231.
--              For all common rtc procedures and functions see rtc_common.jal.
--
-- Sources: Maxim datasheet rtc. 19-5170; Rev 10; 3/15
--
-- Notes: This library supports the control of the DS3231 via IIC.
--        The default is hardware IIC control but this can be overruled using 
--        software IIC control by defining the following constant:
--        -) const RTC_SOFTWARE_IIC = TRUE 
--
--        The following pins must be defined by the main program before 
--        including this library. Common pins for using IIC:
--        -) alias rtc_sck             -- IIC to sck of rtc
--        -) alias rtc_sck_direction    
--        -) alias rtc_sdo             -- IIC to sda of rtc  
--        -) alias rtc_sdo_direction  
-- 

Note: if you need to create a new paragraph within a multiline field, use the "--" special chars. See example in Notes field: "The following pins ..." is part of the Notes field, but visually separated from the beginning of the field content.

In the /tools directory on GitHub you'll find jallib.py and jallib3.py for Python version 3 and higher. Among many things, you can run the "validate" action, and check lots of JSG requirements. You can (must) use it to make sure that all your jal files are JSG compliant. This script will help you to identify problems:

Example:

bash$ python jallib.py validate my_file.jal

File: my_file.jal
6 errors found
        ERROR: Cannot find references to jallib (should have: '^-- This file is part of jallib\\s+\\(https://github.com/jallib/jallib\\)')
        ERROR: Cannot find references to license (should have: '^-- Released under the ZLIB license\\s+\\(http://www.opensource.org/licenses/zlib-license.html)')
        ERROR: Cannot find field Title (searched for '^-- Title:\s**(.**)')
        ERROR: Cannot find field Author (searched for '^-- Author:\s**(.**)')
        ERROR: Cannot find field Compiler (searched for '^-- Compiler:\s**(.**)')
        ERROR: Cannot find field Description (searched for '^-- Description:\s**(.**)')

0 warnings found

Filenames naming convention

A library must be named as:

  • <function>_<implementation|other>.jal for PIC-specific libraries (peripherals). function gives clues about what the library is about. Then implementation or other is here to differentiate libraries, and is more about implementations (serial_hardware.jal, serial_software.jal), things specific to the function (pwm_ccp1.jal, pwm_ccp2.jal, ...).
  • <device-family>_<device>.jal for external libraries. device-family describes the device family (...), and is often the directory name where the lib is. device precisely sets the part (lcd_hd44780_4.jal, rtc_ds1302.jal, co2_t6603.jal.).

Variables, constants and procedures naming convention

All external names (of global variables, constants, procedures and functions available to application programs) must start with a prefix unique to the library. Names of other global entities (not supposed being used by application programs) should use this prefix and use an additional underscore at the beginning.

Variables, constants, procedures and functions must be named as:

  • <device>*<whatever> if you want to avoid name space collision
  • <device-family>*<whatever> if you want to have a common API

For example, co2_t6603.jal library have all its procedures starting with t6603_ (and *t6603* for internal names). This makes all these procedures very specific to this library. If you have another CO2 sensor, you'll be able to use both at the same time, because they'll be no name space collision. This is the purpose of the <device>*<whatever> naming convention.

Another example: the names of the procedures in the LCD libaries start with `lcd*` (and `*lcd*` for internal names). There are many different LCD types, but all implements the same API, because procedures, variables, etc... are named according to the device-family, not the device itself. This is the purpose of the <device-family>_<whatever> naming convention.

Now, how do you know which to follow? Ask and we will discuss.

Note: Following the same principle, naming const/var/procedure/function in a PIC-specific libraries (peripherals) can include the function and/or the implementation. This depends whether you want to have more than one function within a same PIC.

Example: There are two implementations of i2c and serial: hardware and software. Having both i2c implementation within a same PIC is not useful, since i2c is addressable. Thus, all const/var/... are prefixed by i2c_<whatever>.jal. On the contrary, it can be useful to have two serial implementation within a same PIC (eg. one talking a PIC, another talking to a external device). Thus, serial libs' const/var/... are prefixed by serial_hw_<whatever>.jal or serial_sw_<whatever>.jal.

Pin names naming convention

The pins are named as:

  • <device>_<external_pin_name> if you want to avoid names pace collision
  • <device-family>_<external_pin_name> if you want to have a common API

This is almost the same as for variables, contants, ... except the <whatever> part now corresponds the pin name of the external device (usually found in datasheets). Using the <device-family>_<external_pin_name> convention to build a common API may cause problems, if pin names aren't named the same in all supported devices. In that case, the pin name should be as explicit as possible.

Important: See also the very important rules about pin names within a library: "Don't use port and pin names".

Samples and test naming convention

Tests are named as test_<whatever>.jal. That is, they should starts with the prefix test_. That is, samples must not start with test_.

Board files are named as board_<pic>*<whatever>.jal.

Samples are named as <pic>*<whatever>.jal. <whatever> can be whatever, but should give users hints about what the sample is (e.g. 16f88_serial_hardware.jal).

Why such a pain?

The main purpose of this is to control the naming conflicts between libraries and application code. Bear in mind that this is about source-level libraries which are combined by the compiler to form a single application program.

Having naming convention is also a great optimize process, saving time, by scripting and generating code. This is good.

Don't use port and pin names

Don't use port and pin names like portA or pin_a5 in your great library, because someone may (will) want to use your library on another port or pin. It also helps to make your great library PIC independent.

Name your pins according to the context, to what your library is doing. Client code, i.e. users, will have to define those variables before actually include your great library.

Let the user set the pin directions, except if the library is supposed to modify direction during execution.

Example: how to use your library (doing amazing things with the GP2D02 IR ranger):
 -- declare in/out pins for the ranger
 alias ranger_pin_in          is pin_A0
 alias ranger_pin_out         is pin_A1

and make sure the pins work as required:

 -- specify the direction of the pins
 -- Since directions won't change during execution, this is
 -- done here, during the setup, before including the library
 pin_A0_direction = input
 pin_A1_direction = output

and now include the library:

 -- now include the library which uses ranger_pin_in and ranger_pin_out
 include gp2d02            -- ranger library

Exception: If your library uses a special PIC feature, it may use the name defined in the device files / datasheet. Not so much an exception, as you'll use the pin name given the context (feature, peripheral).

Note: Syntax "var ... is ..." is now deprecated in favor of "alias ... is ..." and must not be used anymore. The "alias" keyword is more powerful as it allows to create synonyms for any type of names (variables, constants, procedures, functions, pseudo-variables).

Example: An i2c hardware library (using built-in PIC i2c) may refer to `SCK` and `SDA`. Those pin names are set into the device include file (prefixed with the portname!).

Let the user initialize the library

Most of the time, a library needs to be configured (you define variables/constants before including the file), then initialized (you call <libname>_init()). While having the init step automatically called when the library is called can be convenient, this results in a lack of flexibility. Indeed, you may want to initialize one library or the other, or initialization step can take quite a long time, so you want to have control about when you can "waste" such time.

So, a library must never call its own init procedures, the user will. And the init procedure must be named either as <device>_init or <function>_init, whether you want to avoid names pace collision, or on the contrary, if you want to have different implementation for the same API (see rules about naming convention above).

Avoid weird default values in library

Don't put default values in your library, someone may (will) have a different opinion about what's a default value . Even if it's tempting because it can save time writing the same value again and again. Remember, your library is to be shared, nasty default value can be a real obstacle using it. If for some reason default values have to be used, make sure that you provide a means for the user to overrule oror change them.

Write examples

Write examples to show the world how to use your great library. Without it, people may (will) not use your library, because it's too complicated and too time-consuming reading code to actually discover what it does. Also remember writing examples can help you to design a usable, simple and clear API.

Assembler

Avoid the use of inline Assembler. If you cannot do without it use standard asm opcodes and avoid nasty Assembler statements. So:

Good

btfsc STATUS_Z

Bad

skpnz

Warnings are errors

Don't be tempted to ignore warnings. Consider warnings as errors, until you've completely understand why there should be a warning (or not). Warnings can mask more relevant warnings and errors, so track them and try to avoid them. A library should compile without any warnings... if possible but it must compile without any errors.

Code layout

Indent your code. It helps following the code structure (flows). Code must be indented using 3 spaces (no tab). You can use python jallib3.py reindent <file.jal> for this.

Good

var byte char
forever loop
   if serial_hw_read(char) then
      echo(char)
   end if
end loop

Bad

var byte char
forever loop
if serial_hw_read(char) then
echo(char)
end if
end loop

Use lower_case_with_underscores ...

Good

var byte this_is_a_variable
var byte another_one

Bad

var byte ThisIsAVariable
var byte Another_One

... except for constants

Uppercase variables should be used for constants, internal PIC function registers or for external PIN names, if they are uppercase in the datasheet as well.

Good

const RESET_CHAR = "*"
const SSPCON1_CKP = 1

Bad

const reset_CHAR = "*"
const sspCON1_Ckp = 1

Be explicit when calling procedures and functions

When a procedure (or a function) does not take any parameters, be explicit and help your readers: put parenthesis so everyone knows it's a call. Same when defining the function/procedures. Also note no space is allowed between the procedure/function name and the opening parenthesis. Finally, pseudo-variable must be defined with parenthesis, but not when used (heh, these are functions/procedures behaving like variables!).

Good
-- Defining
procedure do_it_please() is
    -- I will do it
end procedure

-- Calling
do_it_please()

-- pseudo-var
function my_pseudo_var'get() return byte is
    -- I promise I'll do it
end function

var byte what = my_pseudo_var

Bad

procedure do_it_again is
    -- this is bad
end procedure

do_it_again

function my_pseudo_var'get () return byte is
    -- this is bad, too because there's a space !
end procedure

Filenames are lower cased, include statements too

All jal files must be lowercased. So:

Good
$ ls 16f88.jal

Bad

$ ls 16F88.jal

Being consistent, include statements are lower cased, too:

Good
include 16f88

Bad

include 16F88

Inform readers what should be considered private

Functions, procedures, variables, etc... starting with an underscore is a warning to users saying "you shouldn't use me, I'm for internal use only". Play carefully with this, remember users are quite curious and may want them anyway :).

Comment your code

It helps readers to understand what's going on. The comment should describe why your code does its thing, not what is does. That should be obvious from the code itself.

External data

When developing a library, you may need to collect and organize external / 3rd party data. For instance, the relation between a datasheet reference and the PICs described in this datasheet is what we call external data: it's not jal code, but often used to generate some, and always a source of information everyone can refer too.

External data must store in a structured format so everyone potentially is able to use it. Before we, developers, are also (kind of) humans, we want this format to be readable, and even writable, but also structured enough so a computer can also use and exploit it. That's why this format is JSON (and not XML), which is available in many languages. This is a way to share information, among the many scripts used to deal jal code base.